There’s often a lot of confusion about the two people named Enoch in Genesis. The first Enoch was the son of Cain and Awan (according to the Book of Jubilees). It’s often believe the city that Cain built was named after Enoch. However, in the original Hebrew text, it’s unclear if the city was named after him or if the city was actually built by Enoch himself.
The Prophet Enoch
The Enoch that most people are familiar with is actually descended from Seth, the third son of Adam and Eve. That Enoch is the prophet that people know about, the one who ascended into heaven after living for 365 years. His father’s name was Jared. That Enoch was also the great-great-grandfather of Noah.
Enoch, Son of Cain, and His Lineage
The son of Cain would have a great many descendants. His son’s name was Irad, and Irad’s son was named Mehujael. One of the more notable members of Enoch’s lineage was Lamech, who was the grandson of Mehujael and the son of Methushael. The reason that Lamech is notable is that he was the first noted polygamist in the bible, taking on two wives, Adah and Zillah. This is where Enoch’s lineage starts to become interesting.
Jabal, Son of Lamech & Adah
Jabal is notable in the bible as the “ancestor of all who live in tents and raise livestock.” There are a couple different interpretations of this bible verse, which is Genesis 4:20.
Some theologians believe that Jabal was the father of all cattle ranchers, as well as the father of all tent-dwellers. Basically, he would be considered an agricultural pioneer and also an architectural pioneer. It’s also believed that Jabal was a weaver, so he was a clothing pioneer, as well. It’s also possible that Jabal was literally just a nomadic herder of cattle.
Other theologians believe that Jabal was the father of the Bedouin lifestyle. Whereas his uncle Abel simply sustained himself with his flocks, Jabal could actually trade with his livestock, meaning a major cultural advancement. In any case, Jabal was a notable guy.
Jubal, Son of Lamech & Adah
Jubal may not be quite as notable as Jabal, but he is important nonetheless. The bible refers to Jubal as the “ancestor of all who played the harp and flute." Different translations of the bible differ on what actual instrument that he played. In the Hebrew text, it is said that he played the Kinnor and the Uggab.
The Kinnor is translated to be a harp in the NIV translation and a lyre in the ESV translation. The Uggab is translated as a flute in the NIV and a pipe in the ESV. Noted Old Testament scholar Gordon Wenham made the suggestion that he could have played a “reed or a Pan’s pipe.”
Whatever the case may be, Jubal was a noted musician. Anyone who plays a harp, lyre, or any woodwind instrument can be thankful for Jubal’s contributions to music.
Tubal-Cain, Son of Lamech & Zillah
One of Zillah’s two children with Lamech was named Tubal-Cain. His name has been interpreted to mean "he who spices the craft of Cain." In Genesis 4:22, it says that Tubal-Cain was the “forger of all instruments of bronze and iron” and an “instructor of every artificer in brass and iron,” depending on which translation of the book that you read.
There are a couple of interpretations of this verse. Some suggest that Tubal-Cain may have been a pioneer of brass and iron artificer. Scholar T.C. Mitchell has suggested that he “discovered the possibilities of cold forging native copper and meteoric iron.” It’s also fair to say that Tubal-Cain may have also been the first chemist, and others suggest he may have been a miner.
The Hebrew history Antiquities of the Jews written by Josephus gives us a bit more insight into Tubal-Cain. He apparently “exceeded all men in strength, and was very expert and famous in martial performances.” In that same text, it’s said that he “first of all invented the art of working brass.” It’s also believed that he used this art to make weapons of war. Whatever the truth may have been, Tubal-Cain was very good at metalworking.
Naamah, Daughter of Lamech & Zillah
The last of Lamech’s children in the bible is a daughter named Naamah, Tubal-Cain’s sister. It’s not really clear why she is specifically mentioned in the bible other than to point out that Zillah had two children with Lamech. One early Jewish text actually identifies Naamah as the wife of Noah, which would certainly be notable. However, there is some controversy on this subject.
A medieval Jewish text names a different Naamah as the wife of Noah, one related to Seth and not from Cain’s bloodline. Additionally, a 17th century theologian by the name of John Gill theorized that Naamah was actually the wife of Noah’s son Ham. There’s also a demon by the name of Naamah who’s mentioned in the Zohar, one of the foundational texts of Jewish mysticism.
It’s very possible that this Naamah simply was a daughter of Lamech and her name simply was later used for others. Still, the popularity of her name is at the very least interesting.
While Enoch, Son of Cain’s lineage isn’t nearly as exciting as his uncle Seth’s, it’s still good to see that Cain’s lineage did bear some interesting people.